"The best places on earth... a new way to see history by visiting the pyramids of Giza"... So said the American Time magazine on one of the seven wonders of the world, which topped the cover of its new issue, after placing it at the top of the list of the 50 greatest places in the world in the field of tourism and travel.
The pyramids of Giza, which are located on the Giza Plateau in the Giza Governorate on the west bank of the Nile River, were built about 25 centuries BC, between 2480 and 2550 BC. It includes three pyramids: Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
And the pyramids are royal tombs, each bearing the name of the king who built it and was buried in it, and the hierarchical construction here is a stage in the development of tomb architecture in ancient Egypt, and it began with a small hole that turned into an underground room and then into several rooms above it with a terrace, and after that it developed to take the form of The pyramid was inscribed by the engineer Imhotep, the minister of Pharaoh Djoser in the Third Dynasty, and this was followed by two attempts by King Snefru, the founder of the Fourth Dynasty, to build a complete pyramidal shape, but the appearance of the two pyramids is not correct in shape, and they are located in Dahshur, one of which has a flattened base and the other takes a smaller shape that is about half the size of the first.
As for the idea of the pyramid specifically, the hierarchical shape was associated with the idea of the creation of the universe, and they also believed, according to some of their religious writings and texts, that the pyramid is a means that helps the soul of the deceased reach the sky with the idol Ra, according to what the State Information Service stated, and we can sometimes see the sun's rays among the clouds. It also takes a pyramidal shape, and it was also among the many means that could help them ascend to heaven.
We also see the pyramidal shape at the top of the obelisks and some small tombs for individuals in southern Egypt. Even when the kings of the New Kingdom thought of building their tombs on the western mainland in the Valley of the Kings and carving them into the interior of the mountain to protect them from theft, they did not abandon the pyramidal shape, which was represented at the top of the mountain itself in a way natural.
The Great Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu
The construction of the pyramid of King Khufu is a major cultural shift in the history of ancient Egypt. Khnum Khufu was influenced by his father, King Senefru, in building his pyramid. After his death, Khufu, the god Horus, became the ruler on earth, and it became necessary for him to think about building his tomb, which is the first national project in ancient Egypt, in the construction of which professional workers from all over Egypt participated.
The Great Pyramid, with its original height of 148 meters, remained the tallest building completed by man on earth over a period of 3800 years, and it is the largest building ever built by man.
It was built by King Khafra, the fourth king of the Fourth Dynasty, the son of King Khufu, and it is lower in height than the pyramid of his father (Khufu). Its height was 143 meters and now it is 136 meters. The pyramid of Khafre is located southwest of the pyramid of his father Khufu. Its height is 143.5 meters, the length of each side is 215.5 meters, and its inclination angle is 53.10 degrees. It is located at ground level, and the entrance leads to a descending corridor, its roof is made of granite and its slope angle is 22 degrees.
It was built by Pharaoh Menkaure, the son of King Khafra. The length of each side is 108.5 meters, and the height is 65.5 meters. Now it is 62 meters after the fall of its outer cladding. Its inclination angle is 51°20′25″. For a downward corridor 31 meters long. Its slope angle is about 17 degrees.
It was built of limestone, but Menkaure chose to build the lower part of it from granite, which was brought from Aswan via the Nile River. The height of the coverage with granite stones is about 17 meters, and the rest of the coverage was done with white Tora stones up to a height of 5 and 65 meters.
New about the pyramids in 2023
During the past few days, the results of the “ScanPyramids” exploration project were announced, which resulted in the discovery of a corridor with a gable roof, and it is likely that it was found to reduce loads and pressure. King Khufu, above which there are 5 decompression chambers.